Nickel-based Alloy Applied with Passivation

About Nickel-based Alloys Nickel-based alloys are also referred to as ni-based superalloys due to their outstanding strength, heat resistance and corrosion resistance. The face-centered crystal structure is a distinctive feature of ni-based alloys since nickel operates as a stabilizer for the austenite. Common additional chemical elements to nickel-based alloys are chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, iron and tungsten.

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Nickel will alloy easily with most metals such as copper, chromium, iron, and molybdenum. The addition of nickel to other metals alters the properties of the resulting alloy and can be used to produce desired characteristics such as improved corrosion or oxidation resistance, increased high-temperature performance, or lower coefficients of thermal expansion, for example. The sections below present information about each of these types of nickel alloys.Nickel-Iron Alloys Nickel-iron alloys function in applications where the desired property is a low rate of thermal expansion. Invar 36®, also sold with trade names of Nilo 6® or Pernifer 6®, exhibits a coefficient of thermal expansion that is about 1/10 that of carbon steel. This high degree of dimensional stability renders nickel-iron alloys useful in applications such as precision measurement equipment or thermostat rods. Other nickel-iron alloys with even greater concentrations of nickel are used in applications where soft magnetic properties are important, such as transformers, inductors, or memory storage devices.Nickel-Copper Alloys Nickel-copper alloys are very resistant to corrosion by salt water or seawater and thus find application in marine applications. As an example, Monel 400®, also sold under the trade names Nickelvac® 400 or Nicorros® 400, can find application in marine piping systems, pump shafts, and seawater valves. This alloy as a minimum concentration of 63% nickel and 28-34% copper.Nickel-Chromium Alloys Nickel-chromium alloys are prized for their high corrosion resistance, high-temperature strength, and high electrical resistance. For example, the alloy NiCr 70/30, also designated as Ni70Cr30, Nikrothal 70, Resistohm 70, and X30H70 has a melting point of 1380oC and an electrical resistivity of 1.18 μΩ-m.  Heating elements such as in toasters and other electrical resistance heaters make use of nickel-chromium alloys. When produced in wire form they are known as Nichrome® wire.Nickel-Molybdenum Alloys Nickel-molybdenum alloys offer high chemical resistance to strong acids and other reducers such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen chloride, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid. The chemical makeup for an alloy of this type, such as Alloy B-2®, has a concentration of molybdenum of 29-30% and a nickel concentration of between 66-74%. Applications include pumps and valves, gaskets, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and piping products.

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